Swedish

 

 

 

 

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Duved Fort stood on the point that can be seen approximately in the middle of photograph.

 

 

 

 

 

 

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This sign was placed at the Karoliner-Monument in Duved. 

 

 

 

 

 

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In 1658, the oldest fort was built in Duved.             Military Archives

 

 

Duved Fort was established as early as 1658 for protection of the existing passage over the Åre River and as an obstacle against those coming from the west over Skalstugan.  Even if an enemy came over the mountains at some point further south, they must come down the same road to avoid the difficult mountainous terrain on the side of the valley along the river. 

The Fort of Duved thus played an important role as a barrier for attacks against Jämtland.  Stålhane remarked that it would now be difficult to establish the appearance and size of this fortification, which soon began to deteriorate.  However, at the same time he points out that genuine drawings have been found concerning the contents of the fort on the older site that was established between 1710-1713.  A close investigation reveals, however, that one of the drawings in the Military Archives shows the original construction from 1658.  It does not mention a date, but it appears to have been done at the end of the 1600's.

According to the records of the old fort that have survived to our time, it was located on the same site as the newer fort.  A comparison between the questioned Map and the drawings of the new fort also show an obvious correspondence to the configuration of the riverbank.  The building location is on a promontory, which guarantees the ability to have a water defense on three sides.  However, there are substantial deviations between the older Map and the new.  One may perhaps ask on first examination, if they are not the same design, although measurements in that one case have not been reliable and give a distorted picture of the fort plans.

However, the work itself may have had two entirely different designs.  The oldest was oriented with one corner against the promontory’s external side.  Its shape was very elongated and did not fill out the width of the promontory, but instead was shoved into the land north of the river.  If you scrutinize the details of the new fort in  "Brunnman Detail" of 1710, you will also find contours of the old construction marked within the new and you can clearly see the relationship between both designs in regards to the topography.  Only a good third (1/3) of the first fort in the north-south direction was located in the area of the newer, which had its main extension from the northwest to southeast and took in a claim of the whole river by projecting out from this promontory.

By the construction of the first fort, it appears to have been important to tie together the terrain from the promontory’s external point to the main road, which ran north of the river.  This forced an unusual elongated shape, which caused a rather irregular construction level.  The fort was built to concentrate the defense against the side of the main road and on the other side a suitable bank angle created the best possible opportunity to shell the terrain along the main road and the river.

 

 

 

 

 

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Design of Dufve Fort, probably made by Gabriel Cronstedt.

 

The new fort in Duved, built soon after 1710.

Taken from "Forts in Jämtland and Härjedalen" by Bertil Berthelsson in Norrlands Defense Annuals published by The Society for Norrland Strong Defense in 1943.

When a field army was going to Norway, the largest artillery fort was at Duved Fort, which had four 8-pound cannons standing behind a stout parapet.  Further ahead, by a promontory in the river, was an infantry fort with their two supply houses.  Between these two forts, all the foot soldiers were living in tents.  Between the road and the river to the east of the fort stood the cavalry with their 1800 horses.  The ropes were put along the roads. 

Skalstuve, a new artillery fort, was added.  It had been built by artillery carpenters from Dufve Fort and within the fortification was a gunpowder cellar and a palisade that was probably armed with 3 pound cannons from Dufve Fort.  Five artillery gunners commanded the fort.

Taken from "Leaf from Norrland Artillery History”, written by Jonas Hedberg, Captain Kristinehamn

The information starting below is from the book "A Chronicle in Word and Pictures" by Martin Waller.

Duved Fort

The first well-known plan for a strong defense structure in Duved can be traced to the reign of Erik XIV.  Oddly enough, the order to complete this project was entrusted to the earlier named Claude Collart, also called Claudius Gallas.  According to stories, he was the shortest of all the high Swedish military officers.  This wizard succeeded in talking with King Erik because he had first served in the Royal Court as a Chamber Officer.  The results were not much to be proud of.  The fortification was built directly on the riverbank and decayed very soon.  The later information is very vague, and the oldest defense structure appears to have been moved a little higher up the riverbank. 

 

 

 

 

 

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This Karoliner Monument was set up to commemorate the Karoliner death march.

 

 

Despite the peace made in Brömsebro in 1645 and later the peace made in Westfalen in 1648, King Charles X Gustaf commissioned the former county governor and Major General, Claes Stjernskjöld, in 1658-1659 to go ahead and acquire a good fort builder – and it turned out to be Stjernskjöld himself.  A portion of the extension along the riverbank was reinforced, while that same year the main portion of the fort was moved up on the higher land or hill, the crest of which today contains the memorial called Duved Monument, erected in 1892.  The defense structure was a difficult design, which still today gives us a clear picture of how it looked supplied here by a sketch of the plan where one is found those star-shaped extensions in front of where a deep moat was dug.  

Within the bastion were two troop barracks and an additional timber building, which is mentioned in the records as a "Sentry Cabin”, but which probably served as a command house as well.  This improved fort structure did become partly decayed later but not in such bad condition that even in 1675 it was regarded as relatively good enough in case the Norwegians were to become interested.  The fort was involved in August of 1677 in the attack by the Norwegian-Danish army troops under the command of General Von Hofvens, by which time the Swedish garrison on the fort was said to have been minimal.  A majority of the fort structure was destroyed and demolished by the Norwegian and Danish troops before they departed.

In the years 1710-1713 the fort was reinforced under the command of Major G. W. von Wolffen, who writes that the work was accomplished under difficult conditions?  He also states that the local people "could not be trusted”.  Soldiers were frequently lodged on the local farms.

In the years 1717-1718 Duved Fort stood in its full splendor.  The reinforced fort was the assembly point for the popular but unsuccessful attack against Norway, which left from Duved on August 5, 1718.  The purpose was to capture Trondheim.  After a siege of a month and a half the Swedish forces had to retreat back to the border by two different roads.  This show of force came to be one of the Swedish Army’s most pitiful events of the war.

After the peace negotiations in 1719, Duved Fort again began to deteriorate.  The national officials decided in 1734 that the fort should be torn down.  This fort had been one of Swedens finest for a period of a century, but no one dared to contradict this decision.  The official’s decision meant that the garrison, with the exception of a small guard detachment, was to be transferred to Frösö Fort, or as it was officially called at the time, Frösöholm Fort.  A writer at the time maintained that all of the Duved Fort buildings were in relatively good condition as late as the turn of the century (1800).  One of the oldest fort buildings was still there as late as 1791 although by then it was in poor condition.  The Fort’s termination as a defensive installation did not keep the Norwegians from being interested in our border defenses. 

A certain lieutenant, Aga Lyng, who was on commission from his superior, Norwegian General Krogh in Trondheim, was captured for his actions and later it was written that a Swedish “betrayer” surrounded him.  

The captured Lieutenant Lyng was summarily convicted and given a sentence as well.  

However, this shows that the Norwegians scarcely needed to use military spies because the predominant portion of the population in the border area considered themselves Norwegian as much as Swedish.

The fort was the object of a last visit - a farewell visit it was hoped.  At that time, the Swedish guard detail consisted of only 30 men.  It was concerning our first Bernadotte King, Charles XIV Johan, and it was a pitiful show of power against Norway.  The matter was resolved by diplomacy. 

To commemorate those Karoliners killed in the mountains, and those who succeeded to get out of that hell hole and back to the homeland with a heroic effort, an impressive monument was erected at Duved Fort in 1892, as earlier noted.  It is visible from a long distance and the inscription is: "1719 Karoliners of the Native Land!

Duved Monument shown here is not the only one, it can also be found in the Villages of Handöl and Björnänge.  There is a large stone boulder with a date on it by the riverbank and below the present fort.  It marks the location of the earlier fort.

Note:  I {Inger Qvarnström} got the maps for Duved Fort from Ove Madsén in Duved, who himself has done little research on this.